Diet Pills Reviews and Research
by Editors of NMCD
The NMCD is a comprehensive database of most supplement ingredients. Each monogram includes information on what products it's found in, its uses, the effectiveness of its use for various ailments and its safety. In addition NMCD lists any possible interactions between other supplements and medications.
Dietary Supplements for Weight Loss
by Editors of the National Institutes of Health
This report, prepared for health professionals, offers a thorough overview of the most commonly used weight loss supplements; each section details the various studies done on that particular supplements. References to each study are included. Elsewhere on this site, on PubMed.com, the National Library of Medicine which is administrated by the NIH, other articles detail studies done on various weight loss products.
Hepatotoxicity Associated with Weight-Loss Supplements: A Case for Better Post-Marketing Surveillance
by Ano Lobb
This letter to the editor of the World Journal of Gastroenterology provides an overview of the potential for liver damage with some dietary supplements. The author discusses the gaps in establishing the safety of these supplements and previous downfalls, such as with Ephedra.
New Approaches to the Pharmacological Treatment of Obesity: Can They Break Through the Efficacy Barrier?
by Kennett, GA and Clifton, PG
This review paper looks at the past and current science to see where there are possibilities for new obesity pharmacotherapies. It describes the different physiological aspects of our bodies' abilities to regulate calorie balance. It discusses Lorcaserin, Sibutramine, Orlistat and Phentermine.
An Evidence-Based Review of Fat Modifying Supplemental Weight Loss Products
by Amy M. Egras et al.
This review article pulls data from 17 clinical studies to provide an overview of the safety and efficacy of some of the most commonly used dietary supplements for weight loss. The supplements reviewed include: conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), Garcinia cambogia (also known as hydroxycitric acid (HCA), chitosan, pyruvate, Irvingia gabonensis and chia seed. The data on all of the supplements is limited and as a result no recommendation can be made as to their use.
Common Dietary Supplements for Weight Loss
by Robert B. Saper, David M. Eisenberg and Russell S. Phillips
This review article details some of the most popular dietary supplements on the market, their claims, their efficacy and their safety. The supplements reviewed include: guar gum, chitosan, chromium, ephedra, caffeine, conjugated linolenic acid, ginseng, glucomannan, green tea, hydroxycitric acid (HCA), L-carnitine, psyllium, pyruvate, and St. John's wort. While ephedra should be avoided due to serious adverse effects, most of the supplements have insufficient evidence to support their claims or establish their safety.
Dietary Supplements for Body-Weight Reduction: A Systematic Review
by Max H. Pittler and Edzard Ernst
By completing an extensive search, this review article compiles data on multiple dietary supplements: chitosan, chromium picolinate, Ephedra sinica, Garcinia cambogia, also known as HCA, glucomannan, guar gum, hydroxy-methylbutyrate (HMB), plantago psyllium, pyruvate, yerba mate and yohimbe. There is not enough evidence of efficacy or safety for any dietary supplement to be recommended.
Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets
by NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Staff
A division of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the ODS provides fact sheets on a variety of dietary supplements. These fact sheets include basic information on each supplement, such as its use, the research backing it and the side effects associated with it.
Experience (Mostly Negative) with the Use of Sympathomimetic Agents for Weight Loss
by Mario A. Inchiosa Jr.
This review compiles information on the adverse events associated with sympathomimetic agents that have been used in weight loss. These agents include amphetamine, phentermine, ephedra, sibutramine, also known as Meridia, and synephrine. While some of these have been effective at aiding weight loss, they have been shown to have serious negative effects on the cardiovascular system, including strokes and irregular heart rhythms.
Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Body Composition and Plasma Lipids in Humans: An Overview of the Literature
by Antonius HM Terpstra
This article reviews the studies that have been conducted on the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the body composition of humans. While animal studies had suggested that CLA was effective at reducing plasma lipids, the fat molecules in blood, and increasing lean body mass, the studies on humans offered conflicting results. There was no evidence of CLA helping to lower body weight, but a few studies suggested there might be a slight decrease in body fat.
Synephrine: From Trace Concentrations to Massive Consumption in Weight-Loss
by Luciana Grazziotin Rossato et al.
This review details the available evidence on synephrine, a popular stimulant used in weight loss. While synephrine is said to be effective at weight loss by thermogenesis, or the production of body heat, very serious side effects have been reported with its use. These include: high blood pressure, irregular heart rhythms, heart attacks and sudden death.
by Editors of FDA.com
The website for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration offers a wealth of information on dietary supplements, including how they are regulated, guidance, alerts and recalls. Elsewhere on this site, the approval processes for prescription diet pills, as well as a detailed overview of the weight loss drugs are available.
Prescription weight-loss drugs
by Mayo Clinic Staff
This informative overview offers the pros and cons of prescription weight loss drugs, including who should consider using them. There is also a helpful overview of the three newest weight loss drugs on the market, Contrave, Belviq and Qsymia.
Obesity and Thermogenesis Related to the Consumption of Caffeine, Ephedrine, Capsaicin and Green Tea
by Kristel Diepvens, Klass R. Westerterp and Margriet S. Westerterp-Plantenga
This review article explores the effectiveness, safety and mechanisms of action for caffeine, ephedrine, capsaicin and green tea. While ephedrine is somewhat effective at producing weight loss, its side effects do not make it a feasible option. Capsaicin can be effective, but because of its pungent taste, the dosages are not well tolerated. Caffeine and green tea have shown some efficacy at weight loss, but further research is needed.
A Proprietary Alpha-Amylase Inhibitor from White Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): A Review of Clinical Studies on Weight Loss and Glycemic Control
by Marilyn Barrett and Jay K. Udani
This review of Phaseolus vulgaris focuses on the clinical studies conducted on Phase 2 Carb Controller made by Pharmachem Laboratories. Though Pharmachem sponsored this review, it compiles the results of 10 clinical studies. Overall, the use of Phase 2 decreased body weight and body fat in comparison to a placebo, though the weight loss was minimal. Few adverse events were reported, none serious, and most consisted of gastrointestinal complaints such as gas, constipation and diarrhea.
Effect of Caralluma Fimbriata Extract on Appetite, Food Intake and Anthropometry in Adult Indian Men and Women
by Rebecca Kuriyan et al.
This study examines the effects of Caralluma fimbriata extract on weight loss, body fat, appetite and waist circumference, among other measures of obesity. While the extract did not significantly decrease body weight and body fat, it did significantly decrease hunger and waist circumference over the two months of the study.
Effect of Alginate on Satiation, Appetite, Gastric Function, and Selected Gut Satiety Hormones in Overweight and Obesity
by Suwebatu T. Odunsi et al.
This clinical study evaluated the effects of CM3 alginate on fullness or satiety after a meal, stomach function and hormones related to feeling full. The study found that there was no difference in satiety, stomach function or satiety hormones with the use of CM3 alginate compared to a placebo. They suggest further research is needed to verify claims by other studies that alginate can help in weight loss.
Are Non-Prescription Medications Needed for Weight Control?
by George A. Bray
This article discusses the problem of obesity in the U.S., and the various methods people use to try to lose weight, including exercise, dietary supplements, group programs etc. It details how extensively dietary supplements are used in the U.S., and the drawbacks of not having greater governmental regulation over them.
Antiobesogenic and Antiatherosclerotic Properties of Caralluma fimbriata Extract
by Soundararajan Kamalakkannan et al.
This clinical study examines the effects of Caralluma fimbriata extract (CFE) on body weight and fat in rats. When taking CFE, the rats ate less food, had lower body weight and body fat. Though these results are promising, there is no guarantee that similar results would be seen in humans.
Body Fat Mass Reduction and Up-Regulation of Uncoupling Protein by Novel Lipolysis-Promotion Plant Extract
by Shinobu Mori et al.
While this is an animal study, it is the only research article available on Cirsium oligophyllum. Rats that were given a 10 percent solution of cirsium extract were found to have a moderate reduction in body weight and a substantial reduction in body fat. The effects were enhanced with the addition of caffeine. In addition, the effects of the extract were blocked with the administration of a beta-blocker, confirming the hypothesis that cirsium works via the sympathetic nervous system. While these results are promising, more research is needed as efficacy in rats does not guarantee efficacy in humans.
Vital Signs: State-Specific Obesity Prevalence Among Adults -- United States, 2009
by Sherry, B. et al
This paper outlines the results of the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey data that the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) used to update estimates of national and state-specific obesity prevalence.
Over the Counter Weight-Loss Pills: Do they work?
by Mayo Clinic Staff
This overview lists a few weight loss pill ingredients -- both dietary supplements and pharmaceuticals -- and lists each one's claim, effectiveness and safety. It also gives advice about how to take these substances with your doctor's guidance. Most state that there is not enough data to determine the effectiveness of their ingredients. The authors rely on the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (NMCD) as their primary sources.