What the best toothpaste has
- Tartar-fighting abilities. The primary function of toothpaste is to remove food, bacteria and stains from your teeth. This is achieved with abrasive agents such as calcium carbonate and silica.
- Enamel protection. Enamel is the thin covering on your teeth that keeps them healthy and protects you from hypersensitivity. Enamel erodes over time, thanks to acids in certain foods, genetics, medications and environmental factors. Because the body cannot regenerate enamel, it's important for your toothpaste to strengthen your enamel and protect it from acid damage.
- Non-irritating, safe ingredients. Although ingredients like fluoride and triclosan are considered safe by the FDA, some consumers choose to stay clear of them. However, a toothpaste must contain fluoride to receive an American Dental Association (ADA) Seal of Acceptance. Sodium lauryl sulfate is another ingredient to pay attention to, as it can cause canker sores in some sensitive individuals.
- A pleasant taste and consistency. Long-lasting freshness and a pleasing texture are important attributes for toothpaste users, and an unpleasant taste or goopy consistency can land an otherwise effective toothpaste in the trash bin.
Know before you go
Use a fluoride toothpaste. Experts say brushing with a toothpaste that contains fluoride is important for preventing cavities. On the label, this may be called stannous fluoride, sodium fluoride or monofluoride phosphate (MFP). This is the ingredient all oral care professionals seem to agree upon as the basis for using commercial toothpastes. As long as the product has fluoride, it will help maintain oral health.
Look for the American Dental Association (ADA) Seal of Acceptance. The ADA awards its seal only after reviewing the "appropriate clinical and/or laboratory studies and scientific data." Any toothpaste with the ADA seal has been proven safe and effective for the claims on its label. Though there is a fee to apply, not all applications are approved.
Experts are mixed on tartar control formulas. The active tartar-control ingredient, tetrasodium pyrophosphate, has been proven to prevent tartar, but it can't remove tartar already on the teeth. Only a professional cleaning can do that. Some dentists say tartar-control pastes can cause mouth irritation, and do not do enough extra to warrant the risk of this irritation except for extremely tartar-prone patients.
Most whitening toothpastes are over-hyped. While the ADA believes current levels of hydrogen peroxide in some whitening toothpastes are safe, some dental experts say peroxide can irritate and damage gum tissue. The bubbling may make you feel like you're getting a better cleaning, and when combined with baking soda, hydrogen peroxide does kill bacteria that cause gum problems. However, most experts say fluoride plus triclosan is a better bet.
Sensitive formulas can help those with mouth pain. These work for mild cases of tooth hypersensitivity, but expect to wait four to six weeks before you feel any results. The ADA recognizes two effective ingredients in treating sensitive teeth and gums: strontium chloride and potassium nitrate. These "block the tube-like channels that pass through teeth and connect to nerves," thereby reducing "the ability of the nerves to transmit pain," says the ADA. Keep in mind that these won't work for tooth pain caused by cavities or tooth problems other than receding gums. Experts recommend opting for a sensitive toothpaste that contains five percent potassium nitrate.
Avoid SLS if you have sensitive teeth or are prone to canker sores. Sodium lauryl sulfate can irritate the gums and lining of the mouth in some people. If you are prone to mouth sensitivity or canker sores, dentists recommend choosing a fluoride toothpaste that does not contain SLS.
Sodium lauroyl sarcosinate is not the same as sodium lauryl sulfate. The fact that these two ingredients sound similar can cause confusion, so read the label carefully. Sodium lauroyl sarcosinate is considered a milder cleansing agent compared to sodium lauryl sulfate and does not pose significant health concerns, according to the Environmental Working Group.
Consider the level of abrasiveness. Abrasive ingredients are essential for removing plaque, and are usually in the form of hydrated silica or calcium carbonate. Polishing alumina added to hydrated silica is especially effective. All ADA-approved toothpastes fall within certain limits, but the range is quite wide. Some dentists advise erring in the direction of low abrasiveness.
Don't lay it on too thick. Although toothpaste commercials often show actors squirting a huge, swirling amount of toothpaste on the brush, experts stress that you need no more than a pea-sized amount of toothpaste to do the job -- more than that is just product waste. Kids require even less.